Lesson 1, Topic 4
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Amr Elleithy November 26, 2020
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The Land and People

As the jumbo jet descends from cloud cover, the attendant announces that the plane is on its final descent into Cairo International Airport. As usual, the cabin is full, not a seat to spare. The occupants include Egyptians returning from work and play overseas, businesspersons, and a large number of tourists. Whether the passengers are longtime residents or first-time visitors, those with window seats scan the ground to see what they can of the fabled city and its marvelous antiquities. At first, only sand dunes are visible. The flight is in luck. Wind currents require the plane to pass over the great pyramids of Giza. When these monuments appear, cheers, gasps of delight, and murmurs break out all over the cabin. Those among the passengers who have been to Egypt know that this view does not compare with seeing the structures for the first time from ground level. Yet, even at 3,000 feet, their monumentality is awe-inspiring. Even to the inveterate Cairene passengers the puzzle of how individuals more than 5,000 years ago constructed such magnificent burial sites arises. Thoughts of ancient Egypt are in everyone’s mind.

The Nile River

To Herodotus, we owe many truisms about ancient Egypt, not the least of which was that the land was the gift of the Nile. The Egyptian descriptions that he offered in his book The Persian Wars owed much to conversations he held with Egyptian priests in Memphis, Heliopolis, and Thebes during his fifth-century BCE travels in the country. The clerics assured him that their land was “the most ancient of mankind.” Certainly, Herodotus’s admiration for the people and the land was unbounded. He described Egypt as a territory that “possesses so many wonders; nor has any other country such a number of works which defy description.

The history of Egypt is replete with great events and great archaeological events, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and deltas, as well as the achievements and impact of the indigenous people of Egypt. Much of Egypt’s ancient history was a mystery until the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs secrets were deciphered by the discovery and assistance of the Rosetta Stone. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Library of Alexandria is also the only one of its kind for centuries.

Egypt human civilization

The history of Egypt is the history of human civilization, where the Egyptian people innovated and presented an ancient civilization that preceded the civilizations of the peoples of the world. A pioneering civilization in its innovations, buildings, and arts, as it amazed the world and scholars with its thought and knowledge, as it is a connected civilization with circles that the Egyptian people interacted with and left their mark on his mind and conscience. Egypt was the first country in the ancient world to know the principles of writing and invented letters and hieroglyphic signs, and the ancient Egyptians were keen to write and record their history and the events that they made and lived, and with this great civilizational step Egypt moved from prehistoric times and became the first country in the world to have a written history, and it has Systems are fixed and therefore considered by all criteria as a mother for human civilizations. Egypt has its cultural, historical and religious role, as it was the place that embraced the prophets, and the land on which their steps took, so the father of the prophets Ibrahim, peace be upon him, came to her and married Mrs. Hajar, and Joseph, peace be upon him, came to her and became a minister, and his father Jacob followed him, and the greatest dialogue took place between God Almighty The Majestic and Moses, peace be upon him, is on its land, and to Egypt the Holy Family sought refuge, the Virgin Mary, the Lord Jesus Christ, a child, and Joseph al-Najjar, and they undertook a blessed historical journey in its land, and God Almighty chose Egypt in particular to be the fortified refuge that the sky wanted to be an oasis of peace and safety always and a meeting place for the heavenly religions. Multiple civilizations followed on the land of Egypt, so Egypt was the cradle of the Pharaonic civilization, an incubator for the Greek and Roman civilization, a beacon for the Coptic civilization, and a protector of the Islamic civilization. The people of Egypt have been characterized throughout history by the love, tolerance, friendliness, and generosity that characterized these people, as the people of Egypt were mixed into one solid fabric.

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